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Photo of Judy L Bolton

Judy L Bolton

Distinguished Professor and Head, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy

Contact Information

833 South Wood Street
Chicago, IL 60612

Phone: (312) 996-5280

Fax: (312) 996-7107

Education

  • Post-Doctoral Fellow, University of Colorado, 1992
  • PhD, University of Toronto, 1988
  • BS, University of Toronto, 1984

Research Interests

I lead an experienced chemical toxicology research team which is primarily focused on post-menopausal women's health. We currently have two NIH funded projects to examine the carcinogenic effects of estrogens and antiestrogens (R01 CA079870) and investigating natural alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (P50 AT000155). Specifically, we are interested in determining why women who are taking hormone replacement therapy or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are at increased risk for developing hormone dependent cancers such as breast or endometrial cancers. We anticipate that by developing a good understanding of the mechanism of how these widely prescribe drugs lead to increased cancer risk, we will be able to design alternatives that maintain the beneficial properties of estrogens/SERMs without generating genotoxic side effects. Our Botanical Dietary Supplements Center is focused on determining whether dietary supplements (red clover, black cohosh, dong quai) with claims of hot flash relief have any efficacy, toxicity, or chemopreventive effects. Our innovative approaches directly address the key issues of mechanisms and prevention of ROS induced estrogen carcinogenesis, which should allow predictions on breast cancer risk assessment. Finally, I am actively engaged in educating the next generation of breast cancer researchers and chemical biologists and have already mentored 20 Ph.D. and 8 masters students and 25 postdoctoral fellows. Therefore, in addition to expertise in chemical toxicology, hormonal carcinogenesis, and chemoprevention, I bring expertise in graduate and post-graduate education to this grant proposal.

Intellectual Contributions

Journal Article

  • Dunlap TL, Howell C, Mukand N, Chen S, Pauli GF, Dietz BM, Bolton JL. "Red Clover Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Estrogen Receptor (ER) Agonists Enhance Genotoxic Estrogen Metabolism.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2017;30(11):2084-2092. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.7b00237.
  • Keiler AM, Macejova D, Dietz BM, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Chen S, van Breemen RB, Nikolic DS, Goerl F, Muders MH, Zierau O, Vollmer G. "Evaluation of estrogenic potency of a standardized hops extract on mammary gland biology and on MNU-induced mammary tumor growth in rats.". The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2017;174:234-241. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.09.020.
  • Keiler AM, Helle J, Bader MI, Ehrhardt T, Nestler K, Kretzschmar G, Bernhardt R, Vollmer G, Nikolic DS, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Chen S, Dietz BM, van Breemen RB, Zierau O. "A standardized Humulus lupulus (L.) ethanol extract partially prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in the rat without induction of adverse effects in the uterus.". Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2017;34:50-58. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2017.08.001.
  • Dietz BM, Chen S, Alvarenga RFR , Dong H, Nikolic DS, Biendl M, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL, Pauli GF. "DESIGNER Extracts as Tools to Balance Estrogenic and Chemopreventive Activities of Botanicals for Women's Health.". Journal of natural products. 2017;80(8):2284-2294. doi:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00284.
  • Bolton JL, Dunlap TL. "Formation and Biological Targets of Quinones: Cytotoxic versus Cytoprotective Effects.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2017;30(1):13-37. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00256.
  • Bolton JL. "Menopausal Hormone Therapy, Age, and Chronic Diseases: Perspectives on Statistical Trends.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2016;29(10):1583-1590. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00272.
  • Dietz BM, Hajirahimkhan A, Dunlap TL, Bolton JL. "Botanicals and Their Bioactive Phytochemicals for Women's Health.". Pharmacological reviews. 2016;68(4):1026-1073. doi:10.1124/pr.115.010843.
  • Wang S, Dunlap TL, Howell C, Mbachu OC, Rue E, Phansalkar RS, Chen S, Pauli GF, Dietz BM, Bolton JL. "Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Extract and 6-Prenylnaringenin Induce P450 1A1 Catalyzed Estrogen 2-Hydroxylation.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2016;29(7):1142-50. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00112.
  • Hajirahimkhan A, Simmler C, Dong H, Lantvit DD, Li G, Chen S, Nikolic DS, Pauli GF, van Breemen RB, Dietz BM, Bolton JL. "Induction of NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by Glycyrrhiza Species Used for Women's Health: Differential Effects of the Michael Acceptors Isoliquiritigenin and Licochalcone A.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2015;28(11):2130-41. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00310.
  • Hajirahimkhan A, Simmler C, Dong H, Lantvit DD, Li G, Chen S, Nikolic DS, Pauli GF, van Breemen RB, Dietz BM, Bolton JL. "Induction of NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by Glycyrrhiza Species Used for Women's Health: Differential Effects of the Michael Acceptors Isoliquiritigenin and Licochalcone A.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2015;28(11):2130-41. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00310.
  • Dunlap TL, Wang S, Simmler C, Chen S, Pauli GF, Dietz BM, Bolton JL. "Differential Effects of Glycyrrhiza Species on Genotoxic Estrogen Metabolism: Licochalcone A Downregulates P450 1B1, whereas Isoliquiritigenin Stimulates It.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2015;28(8):1584-94. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00157.
  • Dunlap TL, Wang S, Simmler C, Chen S, Pauli GF, Dietz BM, Bolton JL. "Differential Effects of Glycyrrhiza Species on Genotoxic Estrogen Metabolism: Licochalcone A Downregulates P450 1B1, whereas Isoliquiritigenin Stimulates It.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2015;28(8):1584-94. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00157.
  • van Breemen RB, Yuan Y, Banuvar S, Shulman LP, Qiu X, Alvarenga RF, Chen S, Dietz BM, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Krause EC, Viana M, Nikolic DS. "Pharmacokinetics of prenylated hop phenols in women following oral administration of a standardized extract of hops.". Molecular nutrition & food research. 2014;58(10):1962-9. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400245.
  • Bolton JL, Reilly CA, Franklin MR. "Obituary for professor Garold S. Yost (1948-2014).". Chemical research in toxicology. 2014;27(8):1327. doi:10.1021/tx500301c.
  • Krause EC, Yuan Y, Hajirahimkhan A, Dong H, Dietz BM, Nikolic DS, Pauli GF, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB. "Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.". Biomedical chromatography : BMC. 2014;28(6):729-34. doi:10.1002/bmc.3177.
  • Hemachandra LP, Patel H, Chandrasena RE, Choi J, Piyankarage SC, Wang S, Wang Y, Pierce EN, Scism RA, Michalsen BT, Xiong R, Siklos MI, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "SERMs attenuate estrogen-induced malignant transformation of human mammary epithelial cells by upregulating detoxification of oxidative metabolites.". Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). 2014;7(5):505-15. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-13-0296.
  • Bolton JL. "Quinone Methide Bioactivation Pathway: Contribution to Toxicity and/or Cytoprotection?". Current organic chemistry. 2014;18(1):61-69. doi:10.2174/138527281801140121123046.
  • Hajirahimkhan A, Simmler C, Yuan Y, Anderson JR, Chen S, Nikolic DS, Dietz BM, Pauli GF, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Evaluation of estrogenic activity of licorice species in comparison with hops used in botanicals for menopausal symptoms.". PloS one. 2013;8(7):e67947. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067947.
  • Hajirahimkhan A, Simmler C, Yuan Y, Anderson JR, Chen S, Nikolić D, Dietz BM, Pauli GF, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Evaluation of estrogenic activity of licorice species in comparison with hops used in botanicals for menopausal symptoms.". PloS one. 2013;8(7):e67947. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067947.
  • Dietz BM, Hagos GK, Eskra JN, Wijewickrama GT, Anderson JR, Nikolic DS, Guo J, Wright BJ, Chen S, Pauli GF, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Differential regulation of detoxification enzymes in hepatic and mammary tissue by hops (Humulus lupulus) in vitro and in vivo.". Molecular nutrition & food research. 2013;57(6):1055-66. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201200534.
  • Hajirahimkhan A, Dietz BM, Bolton JL. "Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: mechanisms of action?". Planta medica. 2013;79(7):538-53. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1328187.
  • Simmler C, Hajirahimkhan A, Lankin DC, Bolton JL, Jones T, Soejarto DD, Chen S, Pauli GF. "Dynamic residual complexity of the isoliquiritigenin-liquiritigenin interconversion during bioassay.". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2013;61(9):2146-57. doi:10.1021/jf304445p.
  • Simmler C, Hajirahimkhan A, Lankin DC, Bolton JL, Jones T, Soejarto DD, Chen S, Pauli GF. "Dynamic residual complexity of the isoliquiritigenin-liquiritigenin interconversion during bioassay.". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2013;61(9):2146-57. doi:10.1021/jf304445p.
  • Michalsen BT, Gherezghiher TB, Choi J, Chandrasena RE, Qin Z, Thatcher GR, Bolton JL. "Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) lasofoxifene forms reactive quinones similar to estradiol.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2012;25(7):1472-83. doi:10.1021/tx300142h.
  • Toh MF, Sohn J, Chen S, Yao P, Bolton JL, Burdette JE. "Biological characterization of non-steroidal progestins from botanicals used for women's health.". Steroids. 2012;77(7):765-73. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.03.013.
  • Snelten CS, Dietz BM, Bolton JL. "Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women's Health.". Drug discovery today. Disease mechanisms. 2012;9(1). doi:10.1016/j.ddmec.2012.11.001.
  • Gherezghiher TB, Michalsen B, Chandrasena RE, Qin Z, Sohn J, Thatcher GR, Bolton JL. "The naphthol selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), LY2066948, is oxidized to an o-quinone analogous to the naphthol equine estrogen, equilenin.". Chemico-biological interactions. 2012;196(1-2):1-10. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2012.01.004.
  • Hemachandra LP, Madhubhani P, Chandrasena R, Esala P, Chen S, Main M, Lankin DC, Scism RA, Dietz BM, Pauli GF, Thatcher GR, Bolton JL. "Hops (Humulus lupulus) inhibits oxidative estrogen metabolism and estrogen-induced malignant transformation in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A).". Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). 2012;5(1):73-81. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-11-0348.
  • Gödecke T, Yao P, Napolitano JG, Nikolić D, Dietz BM, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB, Farnsworth NR, Chen S, Lankin DC, Pauli GF. "Integrated standardization concept for Angelica botanicals using quantitative NMR.". Fitoterapia. 2012;83(1):18-32. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2011.08.017.
  • Shultz CA, Quinn AM, Park JH, Harvey RG, Bolton JL, Maser E, Penning TM. "Specificity of human aldo-keto reductases, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, and carbonyl reductases to redox-cycle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diones and 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2011;24(12):2153-66. doi:10.1021/tx200294c.
  • , Reeves D, Kropachev K, Cai Y, Ding S, Kolbanovskiy M, Kolbanovskiy A, Bolton JL, Broyde S, Van Houten B, Geacintov NE. "Probing for DNA damage with β-hairpins: similarities in incision efficiencies of bulky DNA adducts by prokaryotic and human nucleotide excision repair systems in vitro.". DNA repair. 2011;10(7):684-96. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2011.04.020.
  • Dietz BM, Bolton JL. "Biological reactive intermediates (BRIs) formed from botanical dietary supplements.". Chemico-biological interactions. 2011;192(1-2):72-80. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2010.10.007.
  • Kastrati I, Edirisinghe PD, Hemachandra LP, Chandrasena ER, Choi J, Wang YT, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Raloxifene and desmethylarzoxifene block estrogen-induced malignant transformation of human breast epithelial cells.". PloS one. 2011;6(11):e27876. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027876.
  • Wang Z, Chandrasena ER, Yuan Y, Peng KW, van Breemen RB, Thatcher GR, Bolton JL. "Redox cycling of catechol estrogens generating apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine via reactive oxygen species differentiates equine and human estrogens.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2010;23(8):1365-73. doi:10.1021/tx1001282.
  • Peng KW, Chang M, Wang YT, Wang Z, Qin Z, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Unexpected hormonal activity of a catechol equine estrogen metabolite reveals reversible glutathione conjugation.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2010;23(8):1374-83. doi:10.1021/tx100129h.
  • van Breemen RB, Liang W, Banuvar S, Shulman LP, Pang Y, Tao Y, Nikolic DS, Krock KM, Chen S, Hedayat S, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Piersen CE, Krause EC, Geller SE, Farnsworth NR. "Pharmacokinetics of 23-epi-26-deoxyactein in women after oral administration of a standardized extract of black cohosh.". Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 2010;87(2):219-25. doi:10.1038/clpt.2009.251.
  • Peng KW, Wang H, Qin Z, Wijewickrama GT, Lu M, Wang Z, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Selective estrogen receptor modulator delivery of quinone warheads to DNA triggering apoptosis in breast cancer cells.". ACS chemical biology. 2009;4(12):1039-49. doi:10.1021/cb9001848.
  • Geller SE, Shulman LP, van Breemen RB, Banuvar S, Zhou Y, Epstein G, Hedayat S, Nikolic DS, Krause EC, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR. "Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.". Menopause (New York, N.Y.). 2009;16(6):1156-66. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181ace49b.
  • Zhang N, Ding S, Kolbanovskiy A, Shastry A, Kuzmin VA, Bolton JL, Patel DJ, Broyde S, Geacintov NE. "NMR and computational studies of stereoisomeric equine estrogen-derived DNA cytidine adducts in oligonucleotide duplexes: opposite orientations of diastereomeric forms.". Biochemistry. 2009;48(30):7098-109. doi:10.1021/bi9006429.
  • Wang Z, Edirisinghe P, Sohn J, Qin Z, Geacintov NE, Thatcher GR, Bolton JL. "Development of a liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of stable 4-hydroxyequilenin-DNA adducts in human breast cancer cells.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2009;22(6):1129-36. doi:10.1021/tx900063g.
  • Yu B, Qin Z, Wijewickrama GT, Edirisinghe P, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Comparative methods for analysis of protein covalent modification by electrophilic quinoids formed from xenobiotics.". Bioconjugate chemistry. 2009;20(4):728-41. doi:10.1021/bc800435m.
  • Wang Z, Wijewickrama GT, Peng KW, Dietz BM, Yuan L, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Estrogen Receptor {alpha} Enhances the Rate of Oxidative DNA Damage by Targeting an Equine Estrogen Catechol Metabolite to the Nucleus.". The Journal of biological chemistry. 2009;284(13):8633-42. doi:10.1074/jbc.M807860200.
  • Gödecke T, Nikolic DS, Lankin DC, Chen S, Powell SL, Dietz BM, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF. "Phytochemistry of cimicifugic acids and associated bases in Cimicifuga racemosa root extracts.". Phytochemical analysis : PCA. 2009;20(2):120-33. doi:10.1002/pca.1106.
  • Qin Z, Kastrati I, Ashgodom RT, Lantvit DD, Overk CR, Choi Y, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Structural modulation of oxidative metabolism in design of improved benzothiophene selective estrogen receptor modulators.". Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2009;37(1):161-9. doi:10.1124/dmd.108.023408.
  • Powell SL, Gödecke T, Nikolic DS, Chen S, Ahn S, Dietz BM, Farnsworth NR, van Breemen RB, Lankin DC, Pauli GF, Bolton JL. "In vitro serotonergic activity of black cohosh and identification of N(omega)-methylserotonin as a potential active constituent.". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2008;56(24):11718-26. doi:10.1021/jf803298z.
  • Overk CR, Guo J, Chadwick LR, Lantvit DD, Minassi A, Appendino G, Chen S, Lankin DC, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "In vivo estrogenic comparisons of Trifolium pratense (red clover) Humulus lupulus (hops), and the pure compounds isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin.". Chemico-biological interactions. 2008;176(1):30-9. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2008.06.005.
  • Dietz BM, Liu D, Hagos GK, Yao P, Schinkovitz A, Pro SM, Deng S, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Angelica sinensis and its alkylphthalides induce the detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 by alkylating Keap1.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2008;21(10):1939-48. doi:10.1021/tx8001274.
  • Ding S, Wang Y, Kolbanovskiy A, Durandin A, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB, Broyde S, Geacintov NE. "Determination of absolute configurations of 4-hydroxyequilenin-cytosine and -adenine adducts by optical rotatory dispersion, electronic circular dichroism, density functional theory calculations, and mass spectrometry.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2008;21(9):1739-48. doi:10.1021/tx800095f.
  • Chandrasena RE, Edirisinghe PD, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Problematic detoxification of estrogen quinones by NAD(P)H-dependent quinone oxidoreductase and glutathione-S-transferase.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2008;21(7):1324-9. doi:10.1021/tx8000797.
  • Overk CR, Yao P, Chen S, Deng S, Imai A, Main M, Schinkovitz A, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF, Bolton JL. "High-content screening and mechanism-based evaluation of estrogenic botanical extracts.". Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening. 2008;11(4):283-93.
  • Farnsworth NR, Krause EC, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, van Breemen RB, Graham JG. "The University of Illinois at Chicago/National Institutes of Health Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research for Women's Health: from plant to clinical use.". The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2008;87(2):504S-8S.
  • Chang M, Overk CR, Kastrati I, Peng KW, Yao P, Qin ZH, Petukhov PA, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Estrogenic activity of the equine estrogen metabolite, 4-methoxyequilenin.". Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2008;617:601-7. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-69080-3_62.
  • Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Potential mechanisms of estrogen quinone carcinogenesis.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2008;21(1):93-101. doi:10.1021/tx700191p.
  • Liu H, Qin Z, Thatcher GR, Bolton JL. "Uterine peroxidase-catalyzed formation of diquinone methides from the selective estrogen receptor modulators raloxifene and desmethylated arzoxifene.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2007;20(11):1676-84. doi:10.1021/tx7001367.
  • Michel J, Duarte RE, Bolton JL, Huang Y, Caceres A, Veliz M, Soejarto DD, Mahady GB. "Medical potential of plants used by the Q'eqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala for the treatment of women's health complaints.". Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2007;114(1):92-101. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.07.033.
  • Chang M, Peng KW, Kastrati I, Overk CR, Qin ZH, Yao P, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Activation of estrogen receptor-mediated gene transcription by the equine estrogen metabolite, 4-methoxyequilenin, in human breast cancer cells.". Endocrinology. 2007;148(10):4793-802. doi:10.1210/en.2006-1568.
  • Overk CR, Peng KW, Asghodom RT, Kastrati I, Lantvit DD, Qin Z, Frasor J, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Structure-activity relationships for a family of benzothiophene selective estrogen receptor modulators including raloxifene and arzoxifene.". ChemMedChem. 2007;2(10):1520-6. doi:10.1002/cmdc.200700104.
  • Yu B, Dietz BM, Dunlap TL, Kastrati I, Lantvit DD, Overk CR, Yao P, Qin Z, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Structural modulation of reactivity/activity in design of improved benzothiophene selective estrogen receptor modulators: induction of chemopreventive mechanisms.". Molecular cancer therapeutics. 2007;6(9):2418-28. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-0268.
  • Qin Z, Kastrati I, Chandrasena RE, Liu H, Yao P, Petukhov PA, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Benzothiophene selective estrogen receptor modulators with modulated oxidative activity and receptor affinity.". Journal of medicinal chemistry. 2007;50(11):2682-92. doi:10.1021/jm070079j.
  • Dietz BM, Bolton JL. "Botanical dietary supplements gone bad.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2007;20(4):586-90. doi:10.1021/tx7000527.
  • Johnson LL, Ylitalo GM, Arkoosh MR, Kagley AN, Stafford C, Bolton JL, Buzitis J, Anulacion BF, Collier TK. "Contaminant exposure in outmigrant juvenile salmon from Pacific Northwest estuaries of the United States.". Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2007;124(1-3):167-94. doi:10.1007/s10661-006-9216-7.
  • Dowers TS, Qin ZH, Thatcher GR, Bolton JL. "Bioactivation of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs).". Chemical research in toxicology. 2006;19(9):1125-37. doi:10.1021/tx060126v.
  • Cuendet M, Bolton JL. "Response of human mammary epithelial cells to DNA damage induced by 4-hydroxyequilenin: Lack of p53-mediated G1 arrest.". Chemico-biological interactions. 2006;161(3):271-8. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2006.04.004.
  • Liu H, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Chemical modification modulates estrogenic activity, oxidative reactivity, and metabolic stability in 4'F-DMA, a new benzothiophene selective estrogen receptor modulator.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2006;19(6):779-87. doi:10.1021/tx050326r.
  • Deng S, Chen S, Yao P, Nikolic DS, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF. "Serotonergic activity-guided phytochemical investigation of the roots of Angelica sinensis.". Journal of natural products. 2006;69(4):536-41. doi:10.1021/np050301s.
  • Gafner S, Dietz BM, McPhail KL, Scott IM, Glinski JA, Russell FE, McCollom MM, Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Bergeron C, Rhyu MR, Bolton JL. "Alkaloids from Eschscholzia californica and their capacity to inhibit binding of [3H]8-Hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)tetralin to 5-HT1A receptors in Vitro.". Journal of natural products. 2006;69(3):432-5. doi:10.1021/np058114h.
  • Booth NL, Overk CR, Yao P, Burdette JE, Nikolic DS, Chen S, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR. "The chemical and biologic profile of a red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) phase II clinical extract.". Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.). 2006;12(2):133-9. doi:10.1089/acm.2006.12.133.
  • Booth NL, Overk CR, Yao P, Totura S, Deng Y, Hedayat AS, Bolton JL, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR. "Seasonal variation of red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae) isoflavones and estrogenic activity.". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2006;54(4):1277-82. doi:10.1021/jf052927u.
  • Li Y, Yang X, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Characterization of two new variants of human catechol O-methyltransferase in vitro.". Cancer letters. 2005;230(1):81-9. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2004.12.022.
  • Kolbanovskiy A, Kuzmin V, Shastry A, Kolbanovskaya M, Chen D, Chang M, Bolton JL, Geacintov NE. "Base selectivity and effects of sequence and DNA secondary structure on the formation of covalent adducts derived from the equine estrogen metabolite 4-hydroxyequilenin.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2005;18(11):1737-47. doi:10.1021/tx050190x.
  • Liu G, Eggler AL, Dietz BM, Mesecar AD, Bolton JL, Pezzuto JM, van Breemen RB. "Screening method for the discovery of potential cancer chemoprevention agents based on mass spectrometric detection of alkylated Keap1.". Analytical chemistry. 2005;77(19):6407-14. doi:10.1021/ac050892r.
  • Liu J, Li Q, Yang X, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Analysis of protein covalent modification by xenobiotics using a covert oxidatively activated tag: raloxifene proof-of-principle study.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2005;18(9):1485-96. doi:10.1021/tx0501738.
  • Overk CR, Yao P, Chadwick LR, Nikolic DS, Sun Y, Cuendet MA, Deng Y, Hedayat AS, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Comparison of the in vitro estrogenic activities of compounds from hops (Humulus lupulus) and red clover (Trifolium pratense).". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2005;53(16):6246-53. doi:10.1021/jf050448p.
  • Dietz BM, Kang YH, Liu G, Eggler AL, Yao P, Chadwick LR, Pauli GF, Farnsworth NR, Mesecar AD, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Xanthohumol isolated from Humulus lupulus Inhibits menadione-induced DNA damage through induction of quinone reductase.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2005;18(8):1296-305. doi:10.1021/tx050058x.
  • Li Y, Yang X, Chang M, Yager JD, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Functional and structural comparisons of cysteine residues in the Val108 wild type and Met108 variant of human soluble catechol O-methyltransferase.". Chemico-biological interactions. 2005;152(2-3):151-63. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2005.03.001.
  • Liu J, Liu H, van Breemen RB, Thatcher GR, Bolton JL. "Bioactivation of the selective estrogen receptor modulator acolbifene to quinone methides.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2005;18(2):174-82. doi:10.1021/tx0497752.
  • Liu H, Liu J, van Breemen RB, Thatcher GR, Bolton JL. "Bioactivation of the selective estrogen receptor modulator desmethylated arzoxifene to quinoids: 4'-fluoro substitution prevents quinoid formation.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2005;18(2):162-73. doi:10.1021/tx049776u.
  • Sun Y, Gu C, Liu X, Liang W, Yao P, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB. "Ultrafiltration tandem mass spectrometry of estrogens for characterization of structure and affinity for human estrogen receptors.". Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 2005;16(2):271-9. doi:10.1016/j.jasms.2004.11.002.
  • Li Y, Yao J, Chang M, Cuendet M, Bolton JL. "Altered apoptotic response in MCF 10A cells treated with the equine estrogen metabolite, 4-hydroxyequilenin.". Toxicology letters. 2004;154(3):225-33. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2004.08.006.
  • Chadwick LR, Nikolic DS, Burdette JE, Overk CR, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB, Fröhlich R, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Pauli GF. "Estrogens and congeners from spent hops (Humulus lupulus).". Journal of natural products. 2004;67(12):2024-32. doi:10.1021/np049783i.
  • Yu L, Liu H, Li W, Zhang F, Luckie C, van Breemen RB, Thatcher GR, Bolton JL. "Oxidation of raloxifene to quinoids: potential toxic pathways via a diquinone methide and o-quinones.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2004;17(7):879-88. doi:10.1021/tx0342722.
  • Cuendet M, Liu X, Pisha E, Li Y, Yao J, Yu L, Bolton JL. "Equine estrogen metabolite 4-hydroxyequilenin induces anchorage-independent growth of human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells: differential gene expression.". Mutation research. 2004;550(1-2):109-21. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2004.02.005.
  • Piersen CE, Booth NL, Sun Y, Liang W, Burdette JE, van Breemen RB, Geller SE, Gu C, Banuvar S, Shulman LP, Bolton JL, Farnsworth NR. "Chemical and biological characterization and clinical evaluation of botanical dietary supplements: a phase I red clover extract as a model.". Current medicinal chemistry. 2004;11(11):1361-74.
  • Li Y, Yao J, Chang M, Nikolic DS, Yu L, Yager JD, Mesecar AD, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Equine catechol estrogen 4-hydroxyequilenin is a more potent inhibitor of the variant form of catechol-O-methyltransferase.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2004;17(4):512-20. doi:10.1021/tx0342464.
  • Bolton JL, Stehr CM, Boyd DT, Burrows DG, Tkalin AV, Lishavskaya TS. "Organic and trace metal contaminants in sediments and English sole tissues from Vancouver Harbour, Canada.". Marine environmental research. 2004;57(1-2):19-36. doi:10.1016/S0141-1136(03)00058-8.
  • Liu J, Burdette JE, Sun Y, Deng S, Schlecht SM, Zheng W, Nikolic DS, Mahady GB, van Breemen RB, Fong HH, Pezzuto JM, Bolton JL, Farnsworth NR. "Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry).". Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2004;11(1):18-23. doi:10.1078/0944-7113-00331.
  • Bolton JL, Yu L, Thatcher GR. "Quinoids formed from estrogens and antiestrogens.". Methods in enzymology. 2004;378:110-23. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(04)78006-4.
  • Toader V, Xu X, Nicolescu A, Yu L, Bolton JL, Thatcher GR. "Nitrosation, nitration, and autoxidation of the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene by nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and reactive nitrogen/oxygen species.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2003;16(10):1264-76. doi:10.1021/tx025641h.
  • Burdette JE, Liu J, Chen S, Piersen CE, Barker EL, Pezzuto JM, Mesecar A, van Breemen RB, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. "Black cohosh acts as a mixed competitive ligand and partial agonist of the serotonin receptor.". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2003;51(19):5661-70. doi:10.1021/jf034264r.
  • Liu X, Pisha E, Tonetti D, Yao D, Li Y, Yao J, Burdette JE, Bolton JL. "Antiestrogenic and DNA damaging effects induced by tamoxifen and toremifene metabolites.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2003;16(7):832-7. doi:10.1021/tx030004s.
  • Liu X, Zhang F, Liu H, Burdette JE, Li Y, Overk CR, Pisha E, Yao J, van Breemen RB, Swanson SM, Bolton JL. "Effect of halogenated substituents on the metabolism and estrogenic effects of the equine estrogen, equilenin.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2003;16(6):741-9. doi:10.1021/tx030001f.
  • Johnson BM, Qiu SX, Zhang S, Zhang F, Burdette JE, Yu L, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB. "Identification of novel electrophilic metabolites of piper methysticum Forst (Kava).". Chemical research in toxicology. 2003;16(6):733-40. doi:10.1021/tx020113r.
  • Yao J, Li Y, Chang M, Wu H, Yang X, Goodman JE, Liu X, Liu H, Mesecar AD, van Breemen RB, Yager JD, Bolton JL. "Catechol estrogen 4-hydroxyequilenin is a substrate and an inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2003;16(5):668-75. doi:10.1021/tx0340549.
  • Xu H, Piersen CE, Bolton JL, Pezzuto JM, Fong H, Totura S, Farnsworth NR, Constantinou AI. "A preliminary RAPD-PCR analysis of Cimicifuga species and other botanicals used for women's health.". Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. 2002;9(8):757-62. doi:10.1078/094471102321621403.
  • Burdette JE, Chen S, Lu ZZ, Xu H, White B, Liu J, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Constantinou AI, van Breemen RB, Pezzuto JM, Bolton JL. "Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa L.) protects against menadione-induced DNA damage through scavenging of reactive oxygen species: bioassay-directed isolation and characterization of active principles.". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2002;50(24):7022-8.
  • Bolton JL. "Quinoids, quinoid radicals, and phenoxyl radicals formed from estrogens and antiestrogens.". Toxicology. 2002;177(1):55-65.
  • Yao J, Chang M, Li Y, Pisha E, Liu X, Yao D, Elguindi EC, Blond SY, Bolton JL. "Inhibition of cellular enzymes by equine catechol estrogens in human breast cancer cells: specificity for glutathione S-transferase P1-1.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2002;15(7):935-42.
  • Tilbury KL, Stein JE, Krone CA, Brownell, Jr RL, Blokhin SA, Bolton JL, Ernest DW. "Chemical contaminants in juvenile gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) from a subsistence harvest in Arctic feeding grounds.". Chemosphere. 2002;47(6):555-64.
  • Liu X, Yao J, Pisha E, Yang Y, Hua Y, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Oxidative DNA damage induced by equine estrogen metabolites: role of estrogen receptor alpha.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2002;15(4):512-9.
  • Geun Shin Y, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB. "Screening drugs for metabolic stability using pulsed ultrafiltration mass spectrometry.". Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening. 2002;5(1):59-64.
  • Burdette JE, Liu J, Lantvit DD, Lim E, Booth N, Bhat KP, Hedayat S, van Breemen RB, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. "Trifolium pratense (red clover) exhibits estrogenic effects in vivo in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats.". The Journal of nutrition. 2002;132(1):27-30.
  • Zhang F, Swanson SM, van Breemen RB, Liu X, Yang Y, Gu C, Bolton JL. "Equine estrogen metabolite 4-hydroxyequilenin induces DNA damage in the rat mammary tissues: formation of single-strand breaks, apurinic sites, stable adducts, and oxidized bases.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2001;14(12):1654-9.
  • Yao D, Zhang F, Yu L, Yang Y, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Synthesis and reactivity of potential toxic metabolites of tamoxifen analogues: droloxifene and toremifene o-quinones.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2001;14(12):1643-53.
  • Johnson BM, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB. "Screening botanical extracts for quinoid metabolites.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2001;14(11):1546-51.
  • Fan PW, Bolton JL. "Bioactivation of tamoxifen to metabolite E quinone methide: reaction with glutathione and DNA.". Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 2001;29(6):891-6.
  • Zhang F, Yao D, Hua Y, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Synthesis and reactivity of the catechol metabolites from the equine estrogen, 8,9-dehydroestrone.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2001;14(6):754-63.
  • Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breemen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. "Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms.". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2001;49(5):2472-9.
  • Spink DC, Zhang F, Hussain MM, Katz BH, Liu X, Hilker DR, Bolton JL. "Metabolism of equilenin in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2001;14(5):572-81.
  • Chang M, Shin YG, van Breemen RB, Blond SY, Bolton JL. "Structural and functional consequences of inactivation of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 mediated by the catechol metabolite of equine estrogens, 4-hydroxyequilenin.". Biochemistry. 2001;40(15):4811-20.
  • Hua Y, Wainhaus SB, Yang Y, Shen L, Xiong Y, Xu X, Zhang F, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB. "Comparison of negative and positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of oxidized deoxynucleosides.". Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 2001;12(1):80-7. doi:10.1016/S1044-0305(00)00191-4.
  • Pisha E, Lui X, Constantinou AI, Bolton JL. "Evidence that a metabolite of equine estrogens, 4-hydroxyequilenin, induces cellular transformation in vitro.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2001;14(1):82-90.
  • Bolton JL, Chang M. "Quinoids as reactive intermediates in estrogen carcinogenesis.". Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2001;500:497-507.
  • Cho KH, Pezzuto JM, Bolton JL, Steele VE, Kelloff GJ, Lee SK, Constantinou A. "Selection of cancer chemopreventive agents based on inhibition of topoisomerase II activity.". European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). 2000;36(16):2146-56.
  • Chen Y, Liu X, Pisha E, Constantinou AI, Hua Y, Shen L, van Breemen RB, Elguindi EC, Blond SY, Zhang F, Bolton JL. "A metabolite of equine estrogens, 4-hydroxyequilenin, induces DNA damage and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2000;13(5):342-50.
  • Bolton JL, Trush MA, Penning TM, Dryhurst G, Monks TJ. "Role of quinones in toxicology.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2000;13(3):135-60.
  • Fan PW, Zhang F, Bolton JL. "4-Hydroxylated metabolites of the antiestrogens tamoxifen and toremifene are metabolized to unusually stable quinone methides.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2000;13(1):45-52.
  • Zhang F, Fan PW, Liu X, Shen L, van Breeman RB, Bolton JL. "Synthesis and reactivity of a potential carcinogenic metabolite of tamoxifen: 3,4-dihydroxytamoxifen-o-quinone.". Chemical research in toxicology. 2000;13(1):53-62.
  • Chang M, Bolton JL, Blond SY. "Expression and purification of hexahistidine-tagged human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 in Escherichia coli.". Protein expression and purification. 1999;17(3):443-8. doi:10.1006/prep.1999.1149.
  • Nikolic DS, Fan PW, Bolton JL, van Breemen RB. "Screening for xenobiotic electrophilic metabolites using pulsed ultrafiltration-mass spectrometry.". Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening. 1999;2(3):165-75.
  • Zhang F, Bolton JL. "Synthesis of the equine estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyequilin and 2-hydroxyequilenin.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1999;12(2):200-3. doi:10.1021/tx980189g.
  • Zhang F, Chen Y, Pisha E, Shen L, Xiong Y, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "The major metabolite of equilin, 4-hydroxyequilin, autoxidizes to an o-quinone which isomerizes to the potent cytotoxin 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1999;12(2):204-13. doi:10.1021/tx980217v.
  • Bolton JL, Pisha E, Zhang F, Qiu S. "Role of quinoids in estrogen carcinogenesis.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1998;11(10):1113-27. doi:10.1021/tx9801007.
  • Chen Y, Shen L, Zhang F, Lau SS, van Breemen RB, Nikolic DS, Bolton JL. "The equine estrogen metabolite 4-hydroxyequilenin causes DNA single-strand breaks and oxidation of DNA bases in vitro.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1998;11(9):1105-11. doi:10.1021/tx980083l.
  • Chang M, Zhang F, Shen L, Pauss N, Alam I, van Breemen RB, Blond SY, Bolton JL. "Inhibition of glutathione S-transferase activity by the quinoid metabolites of equine estrogens.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1998;11(7):758-65. doi:10.1021/tx9702190.
  • Sugumaran M, Bolton JL. "Laccase--and not tyrosinase--is the enzyme responsible for quinone methide production from 2,6-dimethoxy-4-allyl phenol.". Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 1998;353(2):207-12. doi:10.1006/abbi.1998.0653.
  • Shen L, Qiu S, Chen Y, Zhang F, van Breemen RB, Nikolic DS, Bolton JL. "Alkylation of 2'-deoxynucleosides and DNA by the Premarin metabolite 4-hydroxyequilenin semiquinone radical.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1998;11(2):94-101. doi:10.1021/tx970181r.
  • van Breemen RB, Nikolic DS, Bolton JL. "Metabolic screening using on-line ultrafiltration mass spectrometry.". Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1998;26(2):85-90.
  • Bolton JL, Turnipseed SB, Thompson JA. "Influence of quinone methide reactivity on the alkylation of thiol and amino groups in proteins: studies utilizing amino acid and peptide models.". Chemico-biological interactions. 1997;107(3):185-200.
  • Meador JP, Adams NG, Casillas E, Bolton JL. "Comparative bioaccumulation of chlorinated hydrocarbons from sediment by two infaunal invertebrates.". Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 1997;33(4):388-400.
  • Bolton JL, Pisha E, Shen L, Krol ES, Iverson SL, Huang Z, van Breemen RB, Pezzuto JM. "The reactivity of o-quinones which do not isomerize to quinone methides correlates with alkylcatechol-induced toxicity in human melanoma cells.". Chemico-biological interactions. 1997;106(2):133-48.
  • Ramakrishna KV, Fan PW, Boyer CS, Dalvie D, Bolton JL. "Oxo substituents markedly alter the phase II metabolism of alpha-hydroxybutenylbenzenes: models probing the bioactivation mechanisms of tamoxifen.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1997;10(8):887-94. doi:10.1021/tx970060r.
  • Shen L, Pisha E, Huang Z, Pezzuto JM, Krol E, Alam Z, van Breemen RB, Bolton JL. "Bioreductive activation of catechol estrogen-ortho-quinones: aromatization of the B ring in 4-hydroxyequilenin markedly alters quinoid formation and reactivity.". Carcinogenesis. 1997;18(5):1093-101.
  • Krol ES, Bolton JL. "Oxidation of 4-alkylphenols and catechols by tyrosinase: ortho-substituents alter the mechanism of quinoid formation.". Chemico-biological interactions. 1997;104(1):11-27.
  • Lewis MA, Yoerg DG, Bolton JL, Thompson JA. "Alkylation of 2'-deoxynucleosides and DNA by quinone methides derived from 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1996;9(8):1368-74. doi:10.1021/tx960115+.
  • Dowsley TF, Ulreich JB, Bolton JL, Park SS, Forkert PG. "CYP2E1-dependent bioactivation of 1,1-dichloroethylene in murine lung: formation of reactive intermediates and glutathione conjugates.". Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1996;139(1):42-8. doi:10.1006/taap.1996.0141.
  • Bolton JL, Shen L. "p-Quinone methides are the major decomposition products of catechol estrogen o-quinones.". Carcinogenesis. 1996;17(5):925-9.
  • Iverson SL, Shen L, Anlar N, Bolton JL. "Bioactivation of estrone and its catechol metabolites to quinoid-glutathione conjugates in rat liver microsomes.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1996;9(2):492-9. doi:10.1021/tx950178c.
  • Bolton JL, Wu HM, Hu LQ. "Mechanism of isomerization of 4-propyl-o-quinone to its tautomeric p-quinone methide.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1996;9(1):109-113. doi:10.1021/tx9500888.
  • Iverson SL, Hu LQ, Vukomanovic V, Bolton JL. "The influence of the p-alkyl substituent on the isomerization of o-quinones to p-quinone methides: potential bioactivation mechanism for catechols.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1995;8(4):537-44.
  • Dowsley TF, Forkert PG, Benesch LA, Bolton JL. "Reaction of glutathione with the electrophilic metabolites of 1,1-dichloroethylene.". Chemico-biological interactions. 1995;95(3):227-44.
  • Bolton JL, Comeau E, Vukomanovic V. "The influence of 4-alkyl substituents on the formation and reactivity of 2-methoxy-quinone methides: evidence that extended pi-conjugation dramatically stabilizes the quinone methide formed from eugenol.". Chemico-biological interactions. 1995;95(3):279-90.
  • Thompson DC, Perera K, Krol ES, Bolton JL. "o-Methoxy-4-alkylphenols that form quinone methides of intermediate reactivity are the most toxic in rat liver slices.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1995;8(3):323-7.
  • Bolton JL, Acay NM, Vukomanovic V. "Evidence that 4-allyl-o-quinones spontaneously rearrange to their more electrophilic quinone methides: potential bioactivation mechanism for the hepatocarcinogen safrole.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1994;7(3):443-50.
  • Bolton JL, Thompson JA, Allentoff AJ, Miley FB, Malkinson AM. "Metabolic activation of butylated hydroxytoluene by mouse bronchiolar Clara cells.". Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1993;123(1):43-9. doi:10.1006/taap.1993.1219.
  • Bolton JL, Valerio, Jr LG, Thompson JA. "The enzymatic formation and chemical reactivity of quinone methides correlate with alkylphenol-induced toxicity in rat hepatocytes.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1992;5(6):816-22.
  • Bolton JL, Thompson JA. "Oxidation of butylated hydroxytoluene to toxic metabolites. Factors influencing hydroxylation and quinone methide formation by hepatic and pulmonary microsomes.". Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals. 1991;19(2):467-72.
  • Thompson JA, Bolton JL, Malkinson AM. "Relationship between the metabolism of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and lung tumor promotion in mice.". Experimental lung research. 1991;17(2):439-53.
  • Thompson JA, Bolton JL, Schullek KM, Sevestre H. "Bioactivation of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol (BHT) and hydroxylated analogues to toxic quinoid metabolites.". Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 1991;283:393-8.
  • Bolton JL, Sevestre H, Ibe BO, Thompson JA. "Formation and reactivity of alternative quinone methides from butylated hydroxytoluene: possible explanation for species-specific pneumotoxicity.". Chemical research in toxicology. 1990;3(1):65-70.
  • Gibbs, Jr RW, Nayak NP, Bolton JL, Keppel ME. "Speakers' assumptions about the lexical flexibility of idioms.". Memory & cognition. 1989;17(1):58-68.
  • Bolton JL, GREENSHIELDS JE. "A diploid form of Medicago sativa L.". Science (New York, N.Y.). 1950;112(2906):275-7.
  • Davidson WB, Doughty JL, Bolton JL. "Nitrate Poisoning of Livestock.". Canadian journal of comparative medicine and veterinary science. 1941;5(11):303-13.

Other

  • Barton M, Meyer MR, Bolton JL, Prossnitz ER. (2010). "Lung cancer and hormone replacement therapy.". Lancet. Vol. 375. Issue 9709. Page(s) 117-8; author reply 118-9.
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